Object is the default root of all Ruby objects. Object inherits from BasicObject which allows creating alternate object hierarchies. Methods on object are available to all classes unless explicitly overridden.

Object mixes in the Kernel module, making the built-in kernel functions globally accessible. Although the instance methods of Object are defined by the Kernel module, we have chosen to document them here for clarity.

When referencing constants in classes inheriting from Object you do not need to use the full namespace. For example, referencing File inside YourClass will find the top-level File class.

In the descriptions of Object's methods, the parameter symbol refers to a symbol, which is either a quoted string or a Symbol (such as :name).

Namespace
Methods
#
C
D
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Included Modules
Constants
ENV = envtbl
 

ENV is a Hash-like accessor for environment variables.

See ENV (the class) for more details.

STDIN = rb_stdin
 

Holds the original stdin

STDOUT = rb_stdout
 

Holds the original stdout

STDERR = rb_stderr
 

Holds the original stderr

ARGF = argf
 

ARGF is a stream designed for use in scripts that process files given as command-line arguments or passed in via STDIN.

See ARGF (the class) for more details.

NIL = Qnil
 

An alias of nil

TRUE = Qtrue
 

An alias of true

FALSE = Qfalse
 

An alias of false

DATA = f
 

DATA is a File that contains the data section of the executed file. To create a data section use __END__:

$ cat t.rb
puts DATA.gets
__END__
hello world!

$ ruby t.rb
hello world!
ARGV = rb_argv
 

ARGV contains the command line arguments used to run ruby with the first value containing the name of the executable.

A library like OptionParser can be used to process command-line arguments.

RUBY_VERSION = MKSTR(version)
 

The running version of ruby

RUBY_RELEASE_DATE = MKSTR(release_date)
 

The date this ruby was released

RUBY_PLATFORM = MKSTR(platform)
 

The platform for this ruby

RUBY_PATCHLEVEL = INT2FIX(RUBY_PATCHLEVEL)
 

The patchlevel for this ruby. If this is a development build of ruby the patchlevel will be -1

RUBY_REVISION = INT2FIX(RUBY_REVISION)
 

The SVN revision for this ruby.

RUBY_DESCRIPTION = MKSTR(description)
 

The full ruby version string, like ruby -v prints'

RUBY_COPYRIGHT = MKSTR(copyright)
 

The copyright string for ruby

RUBY_ENGINE = ruby_engine_name = MKSTR(engine)
 

The engine or interpreter this ruby uses.

TOPLEVEL_BINDING = rb_binding_new()
 

The Binding of the top level scope

SCRIPT_LINES__ = {} unless defined? SCRIPT_LINES__
 
Math = CMath
 
Minitest = MiniTest # :nodoc: because ugh... I typo this all the time
 
Version = OptionParser::Version
 
ParseError = Racc::ParseError
 
Config = ::RbConfig::Obsolete._warn_
 
Synchronizer_m = Sync_m
 

An alias for Sync_m from sync.rb

Synchronizer = Sync
 

An alias for Sync from sync.rb. See Sync_m for details.

ThWait = ThreadsWait
 

An alias for ThreadsWait from thwait.rb

TimeoutError = Timeout::Error
 

Another name for Timeout::Error, defined for backwards compatibility with earlier versions of timeout.rb.

YAML = Psych
 
RB_WAITFD_IN = INT2NUM(RB_WAITFD_IN)
 
RB_WAITFD_OUT = INT2NUM(RB_WAITFD_OUT)
 
RB_WAITFD_PRI = INT2NUM(RB_WAITFD_PRI)
 
DLSTACK_SIZE = $1.to_i
 
DLSTACK_ARGS = $1.to_i
 
MAX_DLTYPE = $1.to_i
 
MAX_CALLBACK = $1.to_i
 
CDECL = "cdecl"
 
STDCALL = "stdcall"
 
CALLTYPES = [CDECL, STDCALL]
 
DLTYPE = { VOID => { :name => 'void', :type => 'void', :conv => nil, }, CHAR => { :name => 'char', :type => 'char', :conv => 'NUM2CHR(%s)' }, SHORT => { :name => 'short', :type => 'short', :conv => 'NUM2INT(%s)', }, INT => { :name => 'int', :type => 'int', :conv => 'NUM2INT(%s)', }, LONG => { :name => 'long', :type => 'long', :conv => 'NUM2LONG(%s)', }, LONG_LONG => { :name => 'long_long', :type => 'LONG_LONG', :conv => 'NUM2LL(%s)', }, FLOAT => { :name => 'float', :type => 'float', :conv => '(float)RFLOAT_VALUE(%s)', }, DOUBLE => { :name => 'double', :type => 'double', :conv => 'RFLOAT_VALUE(%s)', }, VOIDP => { :name => 'ptr', :type => 'void *', :conv => 'NUM2PTR(%s)', }, }
 
DUMMY_SIGNATURE = "***DUMMY MAKEFILE***"
 
EXEEXT = CONFIG['EXEEXT']
 
MTIMES = [__FILE__, 'rbconfig.rb', srcdir+'/lib/mkmf.rb'].collect {|f| File.mtime(f)}
 
NOENCODING = 32
 
C_ESC = { "\\" => "\\\\", '"' => '\"', "\n" => '\n', }
 
C_ESC_PAT = Regexp.union(*C_ESC.keys)
 
COMMENTS = Hash.new { |h, name| h[name] = name }
 
DEFS = h.to_a
 
NAME_TO_INT_DEFS = []
 
INTERN_DEFS = []
 
ChartTypeVal = -4100;
 

-4100 is the value for the Excel constant xl3DColumn.

OS_NAMES = { 'OS_MSDOS' => 'MS-DOS', 'OS_AMIGA' => 'Amiga', 'OS_VMS' => 'VMS', 'OS_UNIX' => 'Unix', 'OS_ATARI' => 'Atari', 'OS_OS2' => 'OS/2', 'OS_MACOS' => 'MacOS', 'OS_TOPS20' => 'TOPS20', 'OS_WIN32' => 'Win32', 'OS_VMCMS' => 'VM/CMS', 'OS_ZSYSTEM' => 'Z-System', 'OS_CPM' => 'CP/M', 'OS_QDOS' => 'QDOS', 'OS_RISCOS' => 'RISCOS', 'OS_UNKNOWN' => 'Unknown', }
 
Class Public methods
const_missing(c)
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 22
def self.const_missing c
  t = @@golf_hash[ [c,self.class] ] ||= matching_methods(c,constants)[0]
  t and return const_get(t)
  raise NameError, "uninitialized constant #{c}", caller(1)
end
new(src)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 518
def initialize(src)
  super("#{src}.c", "#{src}.#{$OBJEXT}")
end
yaml_tag(url)
# File ext/psych/lib/psych/core_ext.rb, line 2
def self.yaml_tag url
  Psych.add_tag(url, self)
end
Instance Public methods
obj !~ other → true or false

Returns true if two objects do not match (using the =~ method), otherwise false.

static VALUE
rb_obj_not_match(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    VALUE result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_match, 1, obj2);
    return RTEST(result) ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
}
obj <=> other → 0 or nil

Returns 0 if obj === other, otherwise nil.

The <=> is used by various methods to compare objects, for example Enumerable#sort, Enumerable#max etc.

Your implementation of <=> should return one of the following values: -1, 0, 1 or nil. -1 means self is smaller than other. 0 means self is equal to other. 1 means self is bigger than other. Nil means the two values could not be compared.

When you defined <=>, you can include Comparable to gain the methods <=, <,

, >=, > and between?.

static VALUE
rb_obj_cmp(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (obj1 == obj2 || rb_equal(obj1, obj2))
        return INT2FIX(0);
    return Qnil;
}
obj === other → true or false

Case Equality – For class Object, effectively the same as calling #==, but typically overridden by descendants to provide meaningful semantics in case statements.

VALUE
rb_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    VALUE result;

    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_eq, 1, obj2);
    if (RTEST(result)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
obj =~ other → nil

Pattern Match—Overridden by descendants (notably Regexp and String) to provide meaningful pattern-match semantics.

static VALUE
rb_obj_match(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    return Qnil;
}
CSV(*args, &block)

Passes args to CSV.instance.

CSV("CSV,data").read
  #=> [["CSV", "data"]]

If a block is given, the instance is passed the block and the return value becomes the return value of the block.

CSV("CSV,data") { |c|
  c.read.any? { |a| a.include?("data") }
} #=> true

CSV("CSV,data") { |c|
  c.read.any? { |a| a.include?("zombies") }
} #=> false
# File lib/csv.rb, line 2292
def CSV(*args, &block)
  CSV.instance(*args, &block)
end
DelegateClass(superclass)

The primary interface to this library. Use to setup delegation when defining your class.

class MyClass < DelegateClass(ClassToDelegateTo) # Step 1
  def initialize
    super(obj_of_ClassToDelegateTo)              # Step 2
  end
end

Here's a sample of use from Tempfile which is really a File object with a few special rules about storage location and when the File should be deleted. That makes for an almost textbook perfect example of how to use delegation.

class Tempfile < DelegateClass(File)
  # constant and class member data initialization...

  def initialize(basename, tmpdir=Dir::tmpdir)
    # build up file path/name in var tmpname...

    @tmpfile = File.open(tmpname, File::RDWR|File::CREAT|File::EXCL, 0600)

    # ...

    super(@tmpfile)

    # below this point, all methods of File are supported...
  end

  # ...
end
# File lib/delegate.rb, line 335
def DelegateClass(superclass)
  klass = Class.new(Delegator)
  methods = superclass.instance_methods
  methods -= ::Delegator.public_api
  methods -= [:to_s,:inspect,:=~,:!~,:===]
  klass.module_eval do
    def __getobj__  # :nodoc:
      @delegate_dc_obj
    end
    def __setobj__(obj)  # :nodoc:
      raise ArgumentError, "cannot delegate to self" if self.equal?(obj)
      @delegate_dc_obj = obj
    end
    methods.each do |method|
      define_method(method, Delegator.delegating_block(method))
    end
  end
  klass.define_singleton_method :public_instance_methods do |all=true|
    super(all) - superclass.protected_instance_methods
  end
  klass.define_singleton_method :protected_instance_methods do |all=true|
    super(all) | superclass.protected_instance_methods
  end
  return klass
end
Digest(name) → digest_subclass

Returns a Digest subclass by name.

require 'digest'

Digest("MD5")
# => Digest::MD5

Digest("Foo")
# => LoadError: library not found for class Digest::Foo -- digest/foo
# File ext/digest/lib/digest.rb, line 86
def Digest(name)
  Digest.const_get(name)
end
c_str(str)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 31
def c_str(str)
  '"' + str.gsub(C_ESC_PAT) {|s| C_ESC[s]} + '"'
end
callable_methods()
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 42
def callable_methods
  self.class == Object ? methods + private_methods : methods
end
check_arity(h)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 122
def check_arity(h)
  invalid = false
  h.each do |event, list|
    unless list.map {|line, arity| arity }.uniq.size == 1
      invalid = true
      locations = list.map {|line, a| "#{line}:#{a}" }.join(', ')
      $stderr.puts "arity crash [event=#{event}]: #{locations}"
    end
  end
  abort if invalid
end
chmod()

Change the mode of each FILE to OCTAL-MODE.

ruby -run -e chmod -- [OPTION] OCTAL-MODE FILE

-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 206
def chmod
  setup do |argv, options|
    mode = argv.shift.oct
    FileUtils.chmod mode, argv, options
  end
end
obj.class → class

Returns the class of obj. This method must always be called with an explicit receiver, as class is also a reserved word in Ruby.

1.class      #=> Fixnum
self.class   #=> Object
VALUE
rb_obj_class(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_class_real(CLASS_OF(obj));
}
obj.clone → an_object

Produces a shallow copy of obj—the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference. Copies the frozen and tainted state of obj. See also the discussion under Object#dup.

class Klass
   attr_accessor :str
end
s1 = Klass.new      #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s1.str = "Hello"    #=> "Hello"
s2 = s1.clone       #=> #<Klass:0x401b3998 @str="Hello">
s2.str[1,4] = "i"   #=> "i"
s1.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3a38 @str=\"Hi\">"
s2.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3998 @str=\"Hi\">"

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

VALUE
rb_obj_clone(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE clone;
    VALUE singleton;

    if (rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't clone %s", rb_obj_classname(obj));
    }
    clone = rb_obj_alloc(rb_obj_class(obj));
    singleton = rb_singleton_class_clone_and_attach(obj, clone);
    RBASIC(clone)->klass = singleton;
    if (FL_TEST(singleton, FL_SINGLETON)) {
        rb_singleton_class_attached(singleton, clone);
    }
    RBASIC(clone)->flags &= (FL_TAINT|FL_UNTRUSTED);
    RBASIC(clone)->flags |= RBASIC(obj)->flags & ~(FL_FREEZE|FL_FINALIZE);
    init_copy(clone, obj);
    rb_funcall(clone, id_init_clone, 1, obj);
    RBASIC(clone)->flags |= RBASIC(obj)->flags & FL_FREEZE;

    return clone;
}
compiled?(target)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 298
def compiled?(target)
  $compiled[target]
end
cp()

Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

ruby -run -e cp -- [OPTION] SOURCE DEST

-p          preserve file attributes if possible
-r          copy recursively
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 77
def cp
  setup("pr") do |argv, options|
    cmd = "cp"
    cmd += "_r" if options.delete :r
    options[:preserve] = true if options.delete :p
    dest = argv.pop
    argv = argv[0] if argv.size == 1
    FileUtils.send cmd, argv, dest, options
  end
end
create_win32ole_makefile()
# File ext/win32ole/extconf.rb, line 15
def create_win32ole_makefile
  if have_library("ole32") and
     have_library("oleaut32") and
     have_library("uuid", "&CLSID_CMultiLanguage", "mlang.h") and
     have_library("user32") and
     have_library("kernel32") and
     have_library("advapi32") and
     have_header("windows.h")
    unless have_type("IMultiLanguage2", "mlang.h")
      have_type("IMultiLanguage", "mlang.h")
    end
    spec = nil
    checking_for('thread_specific', '%s') do
      spec = %w[__declspec(thread) __thread].find {|th|
        try_compile("#{th} int foo;", "", :werror => true)
      }
      spec or 'no'
    end
    $defs << "-DRB_THREAD_SPECIFIC=#{spec}" if spec
    create_makefile("win32ole")
  end
end
dclone()

provides a unified clone operation, for REXML::XPathParser to use across multiple Object types

# File lib/rexml/xpath_parser.rb, line 10
def dclone
  clone
end
def_intern(func_name, pat, prefix_optional=nil)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 238
def def_intern(func_name, pat, prefix_optional=nil)
  prefix_pat = nil
  if prefix_optional
    if Regexp === prefix_optional
      prefix_pat = prefix_optional
    else
      prefix_pat = /\A#{Regexp.escape prefix_optional}/
    end
  end
  hash_var = "#{func_name}_hash"
  vardef = "static st_table *#{hash_var};"
  gen_hash = gen_int_to_name_hash(hash_var, pat, prefix_pat)
  decl = gen_int_to_name_decl(func_name, hash_var)
  func = gen_int_to_name_func(func_name, hash_var)
  INTERN_DEFS << [vardef, gen_hash, decl, func]
end
def_name_to_int(funcname, pat, prefix_optional, guard=nil)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 195
def def_name_to_int(funcname, pat, prefix_optional, guard=nil)
  decl = gen_name_to_int_decl(funcname, pat, prefix_optional, guard)
  func = gen_name_to_int_func(funcname, pat, prefix_optional, guard)
  NAME_TO_INT_DEFS << [decl, func]
end
default_handler(event, *args)
# File ext/win32ole/sample/ienavi.rb, line 14
def default_handler(event, *args)
  case event
  when "BeforeNavigate"
    puts "Now Navigate #{args[0]}..."
  end
end
default_src_encoding()

DO NOT WRITE ANY MAGIC COMMENT HERE.

# File lib/irb/src_encoding.rb, line 2
def default_src_encoding
  return __ENCODING__
end
define_singleton_method(symbol, method) → new_method define_singleton_method(symbol) { block } → proc

Defines a singleton method in the receiver. The method parameter can be a Proc, a Method or an UnboundMethod object. If a block is specified, it is used as the method body.

class A
  class << self
    def class_name
      to_s
    end
  end
end
A.define_singleton_method(:who_am_i) do
  "I am: #{class_name}"
end
A.who_am_i   # ==> "I am: A"

guy = "Bob"
guy.define_singleton_method(:hello) { "#{self}: Hello there!" }
guy.hello    #=>  "Bob: Hello there!"
static VALUE
rb_obj_define_method(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE klass = rb_singleton_class(obj);

    return rb_mod_define_method(argc, argv, klass);
}
obj.display(port=$>) → nil

Prints obj on the given port (default $>). Equivalent to:

def display(port=$>)
  port.write self
end

For example:

1.display
"cat".display
[ 4, 5, 6 ].display
puts

produces:

1cat456
static VALUE
rb_obj_display(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE out;

    if (argc == 0) {
        out = rb_stdout;
    }
    else {
        rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &out);
    }
    rb_io_write(out, self);

    return Qnil;
}
obj.dup → an_object

Produces a shallow copy of obj—the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference. dup copies the tainted state of obj. See also the discussion under Object#clone. In general, clone and dup may have different semantics in descendant classes. While clone is used to duplicate an object, including its internal state, dup typically uses the class of the descendant object to create the new instance.

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

VALUE
rb_obj_dup(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE dup;

    if (rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't dup %s", rb_obj_classname(obj));
    }
    dup = rb_obj_alloc(rb_obj_class(obj));
    init_copy(dup, obj);
    rb_funcall(dup, id_init_dup, 1, obj);

    return dup;
}
each_const()
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 57
def each_const
  DEFS.each {|name, default_value|
    if name =~ /\AINADDR_/
      make_value = "UINT2NUM"
    else
      make_value = "INT2NUM"
    end
    guard = nil
    if /\A(AF_INET6|PF_INET6|IPV6_.*)\z/ =~ name
      # IPv6 is not supported although AF_INET6 is defined on bcc32/mingw
      guard = "defined(INET6)"
    end
    yield guard, make_value, name, default_value
  }
end
each_name(pat)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 73
def each_name(pat)
  DEFS.each {|name, default_value|
    next if pat !~ name
    yield name
  }
end
each_names_with_len(pat, prefix_optional=nil)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 122
def each_names_with_len(pat, prefix_optional=nil)
  h = {}
  DEFS.each {|name, default_value|
    next if pat !~ name
    (h[name.length] ||= []) << [name, name]
  }
  if prefix_optional
    if Regexp === prefix_optional
      prefix_pat = prefix_optional
    else
      prefix_pat = /\A#{Regexp.escape prefix_optional}/
    end
    DEFS.each {|const, default_value|
      next if pat !~ const
      next if prefix_pat !~ const
      name = $'
      (h[name.length] ||= []) << [name, const]
    }
  end
  hh = {}
  h.each {|len, pairs|
    pairs.each {|name, const|
      raise "name crash: #{name}" if hh[name]
      hh[name] = true
    }
  }
  h.keys.sort.each {|len|
    yield h[len], len
  }
end
obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args) → enum obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args) → enum obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args) {|*args| block} → enum obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args){|*args| block} → enum

Creates a new Enumerator which will enumerate by calling method on obj, passing args if any.

If a block is given, it will be used to calculate the size of the enumerator without the need to iterate it (see Enumerator#size).

Examples

str = "xyz"

enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
enum.each { |b| puts b }
# => 120
# => 121
# => 122

# protect an array from being modified by some_method
a = [1, 2, 3]
some_method(a.to_enum)

It is typical to call #to_enum when defining methods for a generic Enumerable, in case no block is passed.

Here is such an example, with parameter passing and a sizing block:

module Enumerable
  # a generic method to repeat the values of any enumerable
  def repeat(n)
    raise ArgumentError, "#{n} is negative!" if n < 0
    unless block_given?
      return to_enum(__method__, n) do # __method__ is :repeat here
        sz = size     # Call size and multiply by n...
        sz * n if sz  # but return nil if size itself is nil
      end
    end
    each do |*val|
      n.times { yield *val }
    end
  end
end

%[hello world].repeat(2) { |w| puts w }
  # => Prints 'hello', 'hello', 'world', 'world'
enum = (1..14).repeat(3)
  # => returns an Enumerator when called without a block
enum.first(4) # => [1, 1, 1, 2]
enum.size # => 42
static VALUE
obj_to_enum(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE enumerator, meth = sym_each;

    if (argc > 0) {
        --argc;
        meth = *argv++;
    }
    enumerator = rb_enumeratorize_with_size(obj, meth, argc, argv, 0);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        enumerator_ptr(enumerator)->size = rb_block_proc();
    }
    return enumerator;
}
obj == other → true or false obj.equal?(other) → true or false obj.eql?(other) → true or false

Equality — At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendant classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses as it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) if and only if a is the same object as b):

obj = "a"
other = obj.dup

a == other      #=> true
a.equal? other  #=> false
a.equal? a      #=> true

The eql? method returns true if obj and other refer to the same hash key. This is used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition by aliasing eql? to their overridden == method, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false
VALUE
rb_obj_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.extend(module, ...) → obj

Adds to obj the instance methods from each module given as a parameter.

module Mod
  def hello
    "Hello from Mod.\n"
  end
end

class Klass
  def hello
    "Hello from Klass.\n"
  end
end

k = Klass.new
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Klass.\n"
k.extend(Mod)   #=> #<Klass:0x401b3bc8>
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Mod.\n"
static VALUE
rb_obj_extend(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    int i;
    ID id_extend_object, id_extended;

    CONST_ID(id_extend_object, "extend_object");
    CONST_ID(id_extended, "extended");

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
        Check_Type(argv[i], T_MODULE);
    while (argc--) {
        rb_funcall(argv[argc], id_extend_object, 1, obj);
        rb_funcall(argv[argc], id_extended, 1, obj);
    }
    return obj;
}
extmake(target)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 119
def extmake(target)
  unless $configure_only || verbose?
    print "#{$message} #{target}\n"
    $stdout.flush
  end

  FileUtils.mkpath target unless File.directory?(target)
  begin
    dir = Dir.pwd
    FileUtils.mkpath target unless File.directory?(target)
    Dir.chdir target
    top_srcdir = $top_srcdir
    topdir = $topdir
    hdrdir = $hdrdir
    prefix = "../" * (target.count("/")+1)
    $top_srcdir = relative_from(top_srcdir, prefix)
    $hdrdir = relative_from(hdrdir, prefix)
    $topdir = prefix + $topdir
    $target = target
    $mdir = target
    $srcdir = File.join($top_srcdir, "ext", $mdir)
    $preload = nil
    $objs = []
    $srcs = []
    $compiled[target] = false
    makefile = "./Makefile"
    ok = File.exist?(makefile)
    unless $ignore
      rbconfig0 = RbConfig::CONFIG
      mkconfig0 = CONFIG
      rbconfig = {
        "hdrdir" => $hdrdir,
        "srcdir" => $srcdir,
        "topdir" => $topdir,
      }
      mkconfig = {
        "hdrdir" => ($hdrdir == top_srcdir) ? top_srcdir : "$(top_srcdir)/include",
        "srcdir" => "$(top_srcdir)/ext/#{$mdir}",
        "topdir" => $topdir,
      }
      rbconfig0.each_pair {|key, val| rbconfig[key] ||= val.dup}
      mkconfig0.each_pair {|key, val| mkconfig[key] ||= val.dup}
      RbConfig.module_eval {
        remove_const(:CONFIG)
        const_set(:CONFIG, rbconfig)
        remove_const(:MAKEFILE_CONFIG)
        const_set(:MAKEFILE_CONFIG, mkconfig)
      }
      MakeMakefile.class_eval {
        remove_const(:CONFIG)
        const_set(:CONFIG, mkconfig)
      }
      begin
        $extconf_h = nil
        ok &&= extract_makefile(makefile)
        old_objs = $objs
        old_cleanfiles = $distcleanfiles
        conf = ["#{$srcdir}/makefile.rb", "#{$srcdir}/extconf.rb"].find {|f| File.exist?(f)}
        if (!ok || ($extconf_h && !File.exist?($extconf_h)) ||
            !(t = modified?(makefile, MTIMES)) ||
            [conf, "#{$srcdir}/depend"].any? {|f| modified?(f, [t])})
        then
          ok = false
          if $configure_only
            if verbose?
              print "#{conf}\n" if conf
            else
              print "#{$message} #{target}\n"
            end
            $stdout.flush
          end
          init_mkmf
          Logging::logfile 'mkmf.log'
          rm_f makefile
          if conf
            stdout = $stdout.dup
            stderr = $stderr.dup
            unless verbose?
              $stderr.reopen($stdout.reopen(@null))
            end
            begin
              load $0 = conf
            ensure
              Logging::log_close
              $stderr.reopen(stderr)
              $stdout.reopen(stdout)
              stdout.close
              stderr.close
            end
          else
            create_makefile(target)
          end
          $defs << "-DRUBY_EXPORT" if $static
          ok = File.exist?(makefile)
        end
      rescue SystemExit
        # ignore
      rescue => error
        ok = false
      ensure
        rm_f "conftest*"
        $0 = $PROGRAM_NAME
      end
    end
    ok &&= File.open(makefile){|f| !f.gets[DUMMY_SIGNATURE]}
    ok = yield(ok) if block_given?
    unless ok
      open(makefile, "w") do |f|
        f.puts "# " + DUMMY_SIGNATURE
        f.print(*dummy_makefile(CONFIG["srcdir"]))
      end

      mess = "Failed to configure #{target}. It will not be installed.\n"
      if error
        mess = "#{error}\n#{mess}"
      end

      Logging::message(mess)
      print(mess)
      $stdout.flush
      return true
    end
    args = sysquote($mflags)
    unless $destdir.to_s.empty? or $mflags.defined?("DESTDIR")
      args += [sysquote("DESTDIR=" + relative_from($destdir, "../"+prefix))]
    end
    if $static and ok and !$objs.empty? and !File.fnmatch?("-*", target)
      args += ["static"] unless $clean
      $extlist.push [$static, target, $target, $preload]
    end
    FileUtils.rm_f(old_cleanfiles - $distcleanfiles)
    FileUtils.rm_f(old_objs - $objs)
    unless $configure_only or system($make, *args)
      $ignore or $continue or return false
    end
    $compiled[target] = true
    if $clean
      FileUtils.rm_f("mkmf.log")
      if $clean != true
        FileUtils.rm_f([makefile, $extconf_h || "extconf.h"])
      end
    end
    if $static
      $extflags ||= ""
      $extlibs ||= []
      $extpath ||= []
      unless $mswin
        $extflags = split_libs($extflags, $DLDFLAGS, $LDFLAGS).uniq.join(" ")
      end
      $extlibs = merge_libs($extlibs, split_libs($libs), split_libs($LOCAL_LIBS))
      $extpath |= $LIBPATH
    end
  ensure
    unless $ignore
      RbConfig.module_eval {
        remove_const(:CONFIG)
        const_set(:CONFIG, rbconfig0)
        remove_const(:MAKEFILE_CONFIG)
        const_set(:MAKEFILE_CONFIG, mkconfig0)
      }
      MakeMakefile.class_eval {
        remove_const(:CONFIG)
        const_set(:CONFIG, mkconfig0)
      }
    end
    $top_srcdir = top_srcdir
    $topdir = topdir
    $hdrdir = hdrdir
    Dir.chdir dir
  end
  begin
    Dir.rmdir target
    target = File.dirname(target)
  rescue SystemCallError
    break
  end while true
  true
end
extract_makefile(makefile, keep = true)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 69
def extract_makefile(makefile, keep = true)
  m = File.read(makefile)
  if !(target = m[/^TARGET[ \t]*=[ \t]*(\S*)/, 1])
    return keep
  end
  installrb = {}
  m.scan(/^install-rb-default:.*[ \t](\S+)(?:[ \t].*)?\n\1:[ \t]*(\S+)/) {installrb[$2] = $1}
  oldrb = installrb.keys.sort
  newrb = install_rb(nil, "").collect {|d, *f| f}.flatten.sort
  if target_prefix = m[/^target_prefix[ \t]*=[ \t]*\/(.*)/, 1]
    target = "#{target_prefix}/#{target}"
  end
  unless oldrb == newrb
    if $extout
      newrb.each {|f| installrb.delete(f)}
      unless installrb.empty?
        config = CONFIG.dup
        install_dirs(target_prefix).each {|var, val| config[var] = val}
        FileUtils.rm_f(installrb.values.collect {|f| RbConfig.expand(f, config)},
                       :verbose => verbose?)
      end
    end
    return false
  end
  srcs = Dir[File.join($srcdir, "*.{#{SRC_EXT.join(%q{,})}}")].map {|fn| File.basename(fn)}.sort
  if !srcs.empty?
    old_srcs = m[/^ORIG_SRCS[ \t]*=[ \t](.*)/, 1] or return false
    old_srcs.split.sort == srcs or return false
  end
  $target = target
  $extconf_h = m[/^RUBY_EXTCONF_H[ \t]*=[ \t]*(\S+)/, 1]
  if $static.nil?
    $static ||= m[/^EXTSTATIC[ \t]*=[ \t]*(\S+)/, 1] || false
    /^STATIC_LIB[ \t]*=[ \t]*\S+/ =~ m or $static = false
  end
  $preload = Shellwords.shellwords(m[/^preload[ \t]*=[ \t]*(.*)/, 1] || "")
  $DLDFLAGS += " " + (m[/^dldflags[ \t]*=[ \t]*(.*)/, 1] || "")
  if s = m[/^LIBS[ \t]*=[ \t]*(.*)/, 1]
    s.sub!(/^#{Regexp.quote($LIBRUBYARG)} */, "")
    s.sub!(/ *#{Regexp.quote($LIBS)}$/, "")
    $libs = s
  end
  $objs = (m[/^OBJS[ \t]*=[ \t](.*)/, 1] || "").split
  $srcs = (m[/^SRCS[ \t]*=[ \t](.*)/, 1] || "").split
  $distcleanfiles = (m[/^DISTCLEANFILES[ \t]*=[ \t](.*)/, 1] || "").split
  $LOCAL_LIBS = m[/^LOCAL_LIBS[ \t]*=[ \t]*(.*)/, 1] || ""
  $LIBPATH = Shellwords.shellwords(m[/^libpath[ \t]*=[ \t]*(.*)/, 1] || "") - %w[$(libdir) $(topdir)]
  true
end
foreach_proc_entry()
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 109
def foreach_proc_entry
  for calltype in CALLTYPES
    case calltype
    when CDECL
      proc_entry = "rb_DLCdeclCallbackProcs"
    when STDCALL
      proc_entry = "rb_DLStdcallCallbackProcs"
    else
      raise "unknown calltype: #{calltype}"
    end
    yield calltype, proc_entry
  end
end
obj.freeze → obj

Prevents further modifications to obj. A RuntimeError will be raised if modification is attempted. There is no way to unfreeze a frozen object. See also Object#frozen?.

This method returns self.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze
a << "z"

produces:

prog.rb:3:in `<<': can't modify frozen array (RuntimeError)
 from prog.rb:3
VALUE
rb_obj_freeze(VALUE obj)
{
    if (!OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) {
        if (rb_safe_level() >= 4 && !OBJ_UNTRUSTED(obj)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't freeze object");
        }
        OBJ_FREEZE(obj);
        if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
            if (!immediate_frozen_tbl) {
                immediate_frozen_tbl = st_init_numtable();
            }
            st_insert(immediate_frozen_tbl, obj, (st_data_t)Qtrue);
        }
    }
    return obj;
}
obj.frozen? → true or false

Returns the freeze status of obj.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze    #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
a.frozen?   #=> true
VALUE
rb_obj_frozen_p(VALUE obj)
{
    if (OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) return Qtrue;
    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
        if (!immediate_frozen_tbl) return Qfalse;
        if (st_lookup(immediate_frozen_tbl, obj, 0)) return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
func_name(ty, argc, n, calltype)
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 91
def func_name(ty, argc, n, calltype)
  "rb_dl_callback_#{DLTYPE[ty][:name]}_#{argc}_#{n}_#{calltype}"
end
gen_callback_file(ty)
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 165
def gen_callback_file(ty)
  filename = "#{$output}-#{ty}.c"
  initname = "rb_dl_init_callbacks_#{ty}"
  body = <<-EOS
#include "dl.h"

extern VALUE rb_DLCdeclCallbackAddrs, rb_DLCdeclCallbackProcs;
#ifdef FUNC_STDCALL
extern VALUE rb_DLStdcallCallbackAddrs, rb_DLStdcallCallbackProcs;
#endif
extern ID   rb_dl_cb_call;
    EOS
  yield body
  body << <<-EOS
void
#{initname}()
{
#{gen_push_proc_ary(ty, "rb_DLCdeclCallbackProcs")}
#{gen_push_addr_ary(ty, "rb_DLCdeclCallbackAddrs", CDECL)}
#ifdef FUNC_STDCALL
#{gen_push_proc_ary(ty, "rb_DLStdcallCallbackProcs")}
#{gen_push_addr_ary(ty, "rb_DLStdcallCallbackAddrs", STDCALL)}
#endif
}
    EOS
  [filename, initname, body]
end
gen_push_addr_ary(ty, aryname, calltype)
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 155
def gen_push_addr_ary(ty, aryname, calltype)
  sprintf("    rb_ary_push(#{aryname}, rb_ary_new3(%d,%s));",
          MAX_CALLBACK * DLSTACK_SIZE,
          (0...MAX_CALLBACK).collect{|i|
            (0...DLSTACK_SIZE).collect{|argc|
              "PTR2NUM(%s)" % func_name(ty,argc,i,calltype)
            }.join(",")
          }.join(","))
end
gen_push_proc_ary(ty, aryname)
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 147
def gen_push_proc_ary(ty, aryname)
  sprintf("    rb_ary_push(#{aryname}, rb_ary_new3(%d,%s));",
          MAX_CALLBACK * DLSTACK_SIZE,
          (0...MAX_CALLBACK).collect{
            (0...DLSTACK_SIZE).collect{ "Qnil" }.join(",")
          }.join(","))
end
gencallback(ty, calltype, proc_entry, argc, n)
# File ext/dl/callback/mkcallback.rb, line 123
def gencallback(ty, calltype, proc_entry, argc, n)
  dltype = DLTYPE[ty]
  ret = dltype[:conv]
  src = <<-EOS
#{calltype == STDCALL ? "\n#ifdef FUNC_STDCALL" : ""}
static #{dltype[:type]}
FUNC_#{calltype.upcase}(#{func_name(ty,argc,n,calltype)})(#{(0...argc).collect{|i| "DLSTACK_TYPE stack#{i}"}.join(", ")})
{
    VALUE #{ret ? "ret, " : ""}cb#{argc > 0 ? ", args[#{argc}]" : ""};
#{
      (0...argc).collect{|i|
        "\n    args[#{i}] = PTR2NUM(stack#{i});"
      }.join("")
}
    cb = rb_ary_entry(rb_ary_entry(#{proc_entry}, #{ty}), #{(n * DLSTACK_SIZE) + argc});
    #{ret ? "ret = " : ""}rb_funcall2(cb, rb_dl_cb_call, #{argc}, #{argc > 0 ? 'args' : 'NULL'});
  EOS
  src << "    return #{ret % "ret"};\n" if ret
  src << <<-EOS
}
#{calltype == STDCALL ? "#endif\n" : ""}
  EOS
end
generate_eventids1(ids)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 69
def generate_eventids1(ids)
  buf = ""
  ids.each do |id, arity|
    buf << %Q[static ID ripper_id_#{id};\n]
  end
  buf << %Q[\n]
  buf << %Q[static void\n]
  buf << %Q[ripper_init_eventids1(void)\n]
  buf << %Q[{\n]
  ids.each do |id, arity|
    buf << %Q[    ripper_id_#{id} = rb_intern_const("on_#{id}");\n]
  end
  buf << %Q[}\n]
  buf << %Q[\n]
  buf << %Q[static void\n]
  buf << %Q[ripper_init_eventids1_table(VALUE self)\n]
  buf << %Q[{\n]
  buf << %Q[    VALUE h = rb_hash_new();\n]
  buf << %Q[    ID id;\n]
  buf << %Q[    rb_define_const(self, "PARSER_EVENT_TABLE", h);\n]
  ids.each do |id, arity|
    buf << %Q[    id = rb_intern_const("#{id}");\n]
    buf << %Q[    rb_hash_aset(h, ID2SYM(id), INT2NUM(#{arity}));\n]
  end
  buf << %Q[}\n]
  buf
end
generate_eventids2_table(ids)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 97
def generate_eventids2_table(ids)
  buf = ""
  buf << %Q[static void\n]
  buf << %Q[ripper_init_eventids2_table(VALUE self)\n]
  buf << %Q[{\n]
  buf << %Q[    VALUE h = rb_hash_new();\n]
  buf << %Q[    ID id;\n]
  buf << %Q[    rb_define_const(self, "SCANNER_EVENT_TABLE", h);\n]
  ids.each do |id|
    buf << %Q[    id = rb_intern_const("#{id}");\n]
    buf << %Q[    rb_hash_aset(h, ID2SYM(id), INT2NUM(1));\n]
  end
  buf << %Q[}\n]
  buf
end
grammar(f, out)
# File ext/ripper/tools/preproc.rb, line 63
def grammar(f, out)
  while line = f.gets
    case line
    when %r</\*%%%\*/>
      out << '#if 0' << $/
    when %r</\*%c%\*/>
      out << '/*' << $/
    when %r</\*%c>
      out << '*/' << $/
    when %r</\*%>
      out << '#endif' << $/
    when %r<%\*/>
      out << $/
    when /\A%%/
      out << '%%' << $/
      return
    else
      out << line
    end
  end
end
have_all(*args)
# File ext/curses/extconf.rb, line 3
def have_all(*args)
  old_libs = $libs.dup
  old_defs = $defs.dup
  result = []
  begin
    args.each {|arg|
      r = arg.call(*result)
      if !r
        return nil
      end
      result << r
    }
    result
  ensure
    if result.length != args.length
      $libs = old_libs
      $defs = old_defs
    end
  end
end
have_declared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 42
def have_declared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  checking_for checking_message([*var].compact.join(' '), headers, opt) do
    try_declared_libvar(var, headers, opt, &b)
  end
end
have_empty_macro_dbm_clearerr(headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 89
def have_empty_macro_dbm_clearerr(headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  checking_for checking_message('empty macro of dbm_clearerr(foobarbaz)',
                                headers, opt) do
    try_toplevel('dbm_clearerr(foobarbaz)', headers, opt, &b)
  end
end
have_undeclared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 64
def have_undeclared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  checking_for checking_message([*var].compact.join(' '), headers, opt) do
    try_undeclared_libvar(var, headers, opt, &b)
  end
end
help()

Display help message.

ruby -run -e help [COMMAND]
# File lib/un.rb, line 336
def help
  setup do |argv,|
    all = argv.empty?
    open(__FILE__) do |me|
      while me.gets("##\n")
        if help = me.gets("\n\n")
          if all or argv.delete help[/-e \w+/].sub(/-e /, "")
            print help.gsub(/^# ?/, "")
          end
        end
      end
    end
  end
end
httpd()

Run WEBrick HTTP server.

ruby -run -e httpd -- [OPTION] DocumentRoot

--bind-address=ADDR         address to bind
--port=NUM                  listening port number
--max-clients=MAX           max number of simultaneous clients
--temp-dir=DIR              temporary directory
--do-not-reverse-lookup     disable reverse lookup
--request-timeout=SECOND    request timeout in seconds
--http-version=VERSION      HTTP version
-v                          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 305
def httpd
  setup("", "BindAddress=ADDR", "Port=PORT", "MaxClients=NUM", "TempDir=DIR",
        "DoNotReverseLookup", "RequestTimeout=SECOND", "HTTPVersion=VERSION") do
    |argv, options|
    require 'webrick'
    opt = options[:RequestTimeout] and options[:RequestTimeout] = opt.to_i
    [:Port, :MaxClients].each do |name|
      opt = options[name] and (options[name] = Integer(opt)) rescue nil
    end
    unless argv.size == 1
      raise ArgumentError, "DocumentRoot is mandatory"
    end
    options[:DocumentRoot] = argv.shift
    s = WEBrick::HTTPServer.new(options)
    shut = proc {s.shutdown}
    siglist = %wTERM QUIT"
    siglist.concat(%wHUP INT") if STDIN.tty?
    siglist &= Signal.list.keys
    siglist.each do |sig|
      Signal.trap(sig, shut)
    end
    s.start
  end
end
obj.inspect → string

Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of obj. By default, show the class name and the list of the instance variables and their values (by calling inspect on each of them). User defined classes should override this method to make better representation of obj. When overriding this method, it should return a string whose encoding is compatible with the default external encoding.

[ 1, 2, 3..4, 'five' ].inspect   #=> "[1, 2, 3..4, \"five\"]"
Time.new.inspect                 #=> "2008-03-08 19:43:39 +0900"

class Foo
end
Foo.new.inspect                  #=> "#<Foo:0x0300c868>"

class Bar
  def initialize
    @bar = 1
  end
end
Bar.new.inspect                  #=> "#<Bar:0x0300c868 @bar=1>"

class Baz
  def to_s
    "baz"
  end
end
Baz.new.inspect                  #=> "#<Baz:0x0300c868>"
static VALUE
rb_obj_inspect(VALUE obj)
{
    if (rb_ivar_count(obj) > 0) {
        VALUE str;
        VALUE c = rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(obj));

        str = rb_sprintf("-<%"PRIsVALUE":%p", c, (void*)obj);
        return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_obj, obj, str);
    }
    else {
        return rb_any_to_s(obj);
    }
}
install()

Copy SOURCE to DEST.

ruby -run -e install -- [OPTION] SOURCE DEST

-p          apply access/modification times of SOURCE files to
            corresponding destination files
-m          set permission mode (as in chmod), instead of 0755
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 188
def install
  setup("pm:") do |argv, options|
    options[:mode] = (mode = options.delete :m) ? mode.oct : 0755
    options[:preserve] = true if options.delete :p
    dest = argv.pop
    argv = argv[0] if argv.size == 1
    FileUtils.install argv, dest, options
  end
end
obj.instance_of?(class) → true or false

Returns true if obj is an instance of the given class. See also Object#kind_of?.

class A;     end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end

b = B.new
b.instance_of? A   #=> false
b.instance_of? B   #=> true
b.instance_of? C   #=> false
VALUE
rb_obj_is_instance_of(VALUE obj, VALUE c)
{
    c = class_or_module_required(c);
    if (rb_obj_class(obj) == c) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.instance_variable_defined?(symbol) → true or false

Returns true if the given instance variable is defined in obj.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_defined?(:@a)    #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@b")   #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@c")   #=> false
static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_defined(VALUE obj, VALUE iv)
{
    ID id = rb_check_id(&iv);

    if (!id) {
        if (rb_is_instance_name(iv)) {
            return Qfalse;
        }
        else {
            rb_name_error_str(iv, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
                              QUOTE(iv));
        }
    }
    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
        rb_name_error(id, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
                      QUOTE_ID(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_defined(obj, id);
}
obj.instance_variable_get(symbol) → obj

Returns the value of the given instance variable, or nil if the instance variable is not set. The @ part of the variable name should be included for regular instance variables. Throws a NameError exception if the supplied symbol is not valid as an instance variable name.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_get(:@a)    #=> "cat"
fred.instance_variable_get("@b")   #=> 99
static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_get(VALUE obj, VALUE iv)
{
    ID id = rb_check_id(&iv);

    if (!id) {
        if (rb_is_instance_name(iv)) {
            return Qnil;
        }
        else {
            rb_name_error_str(iv, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
                              QUOTE(iv));
        }
    }
    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
        rb_name_error(id, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
                      QUOTE_ID(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_get(obj, id);
}
obj.instance_variable_set(symbol, obj) → obj

Sets the instance variable names by symbol to object, thereby frustrating the efforts of the class's author to attempt to provide proper encapsulation. The variable did not have to exist prior to this call.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_set(:@a, 'dog')   #=> "dog"
fred.instance_variable_set(:@c, 'cat')   #=> "cat"
fred.inspect                             #=> "#<Fred:0x401b3da8 @a=\"dog\", @b=99, @c=\"cat\">"
static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_set(VALUE obj, VALUE iv, VALUE val)
{
    ID id = rb_to_id(iv);

    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
        rb_name_error(id, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
                      QUOTE_ID(id));
    }
    return rb_ivar_set(obj, id, val);
}
obj.instance_variables → array

Returns an array of instance variable names for the receiver. Note that simply defining an accessor does not create the corresponding instance variable.

class Fred
  attr_accessor :a1
  def initialize
    @iv = 3
  end
end
Fred.new.instance_variables   #=> [:@iv]
VALUE
rb_obj_instance_variables(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE ary;

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    rb_ivar_foreach(obj, ivar_i, ary);
    return ary;
}
obj.is_a?(class) → true or false obj.kind_of?(class) → true or false

Returns true if class is the class of obj, or if class is one of the superclasses of obj or modules included in obj.

module M;    end
class A
  include M
end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end

b = B.new
b.is_a? A          #=> true
b.is_a? B          #=> true
b.is_a? C          #=> false
b.is_a? M          #=> true

b.kind_of? A       #=> true
b.kind_of? B       #=> true
b.kind_of? C       #=> false
b.kind_of? M       #=> true
VALUE
rb_obj_is_kind_of(VALUE obj, VALUE c)
{
    VALUE cl = CLASS_OF(obj);

    c = class_or_module_required(c);
    c = RCLASS_ORIGIN(c);
    while (cl) {
        if (cl == c || RCLASS_M_TBL(cl) == RCLASS_M_TBL(c))
            return Qtrue;
        cl = RCLASS_SUPER(cl);
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.is_a?(class) → true or false obj.kind_of?(class) → true or false

Returns true if class is the class of obj, or if class is one of the superclasses of obj or modules included in obj.

module M;    end
class A
  include M
end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end

b = B.new
b.is_a? A          #=> true
b.is_a? B          #=> true
b.is_a? C          #=> false
b.is_a? M          #=> true

b.kind_of? A       #=> true
b.kind_of? B       #=> true
b.kind_of? C       #=> false
b.kind_of? M       #=> true
VALUE
rb_obj_is_kind_of(VALUE obj, VALUE c)
{
    VALUE cl = CLASS_OF(obj);

    c = class_or_module_required(c);
    c = RCLASS_ORIGIN(c);
    while (cl) {
        if (cl == c || RCLASS_M_TBL(cl) == RCLASS_M_TBL(c))
            return Qtrue;
        cl = RCLASS_SUPER(cl);
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
listup(items)
# File ext/win32ole/sample/oledirs.rb, line 7
def listup(items)
#  items.each do |i|
  for i in items
    puts i.name
  end
end
ln()

Create a link to the specified TARGET with LINK_NAME.

ruby -run -e ln -- [OPTION] TARGET LINK_NAME

-s          make symbolic links instead of hard links
-f          remove existing destination files
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 98
def ln
  setup("sf") do |argv, options|
    cmd = "ln"
    cmd += "_s" if options.delete :s
    options[:force] = true if options.delete :f
    dest = argv.pop
    argv = argv[0] if argv.size == 1
    FileUtils.send cmd, argv, dest, options
  end
end
main()
# File ext/ripper/extconf.rb, line 6
def main
  unless find_executable('bison')
    unless File.exist?('ripper.c') or File.exist?("#{$srcdir}/ripper.c")
      raise 'missing bison; abort'
    end
  end
  $objs = %w(ripper.o)
  $cleanfiles.concat %w(ripper.y ripper.c ripper.E ripper.output y.output eventids1.c eventids2table.c)
  $defs << '-DRIPPER'
  $defs << '-DRIPPER_DEBUG' if $debug
  $VPATH << '$(topdir)' << '$(top_srcdir)'
  $INCFLAGS << ' -I$(topdir) -I$(top_srcdir)'
  create_makefile 'ripper'
end
matching_methods(s='', m=callable_methods)
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 15
def matching_methods(s='', m=callable_methods)
  r=/^#{s.to_s.gsub(/./){"(.*?)"+Regexp.escape($&)}}/
  m.grep(r).sort_by do |i|
    i.to_s.match(r).captures.map(&:size) << i
  end
end
obj.method(sym) → method

Looks up the named method as a receiver in obj, returning a Method object (or raising NameError). The Method object acts as a closure in obj's object instance, so instance variables and the value of self remain available.

class Demo
  def initialize(n)
    @iv = n
  end
  def hello()
    "Hello, @iv = #{@iv}"
  end
end

k = Demo.new(99)
m = k.method(:hello)
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = 99"

l = Demo.new('Fred')
m = l.method("hello")
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = Fred"
VALUE
rb_obj_method(VALUE obj, VALUE vid)
{
    ID id = rb_check_id(&vid);
    if (!id) {
        rb_method_name_error(CLASS_OF(obj), vid);
    }
    return mnew(CLASS_OF(obj), obj, id, rb_cMethod, FALSE);
}
method_missing(m, *a, &b)
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 3
def method_missing m, *a, &b
  t = @@golf_hash[ [m,self.class] ] ||= matching_methods(m)[0]
  if t && b
    __send__(t, *a) {|*args|
      b.binding.eval("proc{|golf_matchdata| $~ = golf_matchdata }").call($~) if $~
      b.call(*args)
    }
  else
    t ? __send__(t, *a, &b) : super
  end
end
obj.methods(all=true) → array

Returns a list of the names of public and protected methods of obj. This will include all the methods accessible in obj's ancestors. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

class Klass
  def klass_method()
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.methods[0..9]    #=> [:klass_method, :nil?, :===,
                   #    :==~, :!, :eql?
                   #    :hash, :<=>, :class, :singleton_class]
k.methods.length   #=> 57
VALUE
rb_obj_methods(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
  retry:
    if (argc == 0) {
	return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_i);
    }
    else {
	VALUE recur;

	rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1", &recur);
	if (RTEST(recur)) {
	    argc = 0;
	    goto retry;
	}
	return rb_obj_singleton_methods(argc, argv, obj);
    }
}
mkdir()

Create the DIR, if they do not already exist.

ruby -run -e mkdir -- [OPTION] DIR

-p          no error if existing, make parent directories as needed
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 153
def mkdir
  setup("p") do |argv, options|
    cmd = "mkdir"
    cmd += "_p" if options.delete :p
    FileUtils.send cmd, argv, options
  end
end
mkmf()

Create makefile using mkmf.

ruby -run -e mkmf -- [OPTION] EXTNAME [OPTION]

-d ARGS     run dir_config
-h ARGS     run have_header
-l ARGS     run have_library
-f ARGS     run have_func
-v ARGS     run have_var
-t ARGS     run have_type
-m ARGS     run have_macro
-c ARGS     run have_const
--vendor    install to vendor_ruby
# File lib/un.rb, line 274
def mkmf
  setup("d:h:l:f:v:t:m:c:", "vendor") do |argv, options|
    require 'mkmf'
    opt = options[:d] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| dir_config(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:h] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_header(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:l] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_library(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:f] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_func(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:v] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_var(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:t] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_type(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:m] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_macro(*n.split(/,/))}
    opt = options[:c] and opt.split(/:/).each {|n| have_const(*n.split(/,/))}
    $configure_args["--vendor"] = true if options[:vendor]
    create_makefile(*argv)
  end
end
mv()

Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

ruby -run -e mv -- [OPTION] SOURCE DEST

-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 117
def mv
  setup do |argv, options|
    dest = argv.pop
    argv = argv[0] if argv.size == 1
    FileUtils.mv argv, dest, options
  end
end
navigate(url)
# File ext/win32ole/sample/ienavi.rb, line 5
def navigate(url)
  $urls << url
end
nil?()

call_seq:

nil.nil?               -> true
<anything_else>.nil?   -> false

Only the object nil responds true to nil?.

static VALUE
rb_false(VALUE obj)
{
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.__id__ → integer obj.object_id → integer

Returns an integer identifier for obj.

The same number will be returned on all calls to id for a given object, and no two active objects will share an id.

#object_id is a different concept from the :name notation, which returns the symbol id of name.

Replaces the deprecated Object#id.

VALUE
rb_obj_id(VALUE obj)
{
    /*
     *                32-bit VALUE space
     *          MSB ------------------------ LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol  ssssssssssssssssssssssss00001110
     *  object  oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo00        = 0 (mod sizeof(RVALUE))
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1
     *
     *                    object_id space
     *                                       LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol   000SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS0        S...S % A = 4 (S...S = s...s * A + 4)
     *  object   oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0        o...o % A = 0
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1        bignum if required
     *
     *  where A = sizeof(RVALUE)/4
     *
     *  sizeof(RVALUE) is
     *  20 if 32-bit, double is 4-byte aligned
     *  24 if 32-bit, double is 8-byte aligned
     *  40 if 64-bit
     */
    if (SYMBOL_P(obj)) {
        return (SYM2ID(obj) * sizeof(RVALUE) + (4 << 2)) | FIXNUM_FLAG;
    }
    else if (FLONUM_P(obj)) {
#if SIZEOF_LONG == SIZEOF_VOIDP
        return LONG2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
#else
        return LL2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
#endif
    }
    else if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
        return LONG2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
    }
    return nonspecial_obj_id(obj);
}
onsig(sig)
# File ext/curses/rain.rb, line 7
def onsig(sig)
  close_screen
  exit sig
end
parse_args()
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 302
def parse_args()
  $mflags = []
  $makeflags = [] # for make command to build ruby, so quoted

  $optparser ||= OptionParser.new do |opts|
    opts.on('-n') {$dryrun = true}
    opts.on('--[no-]extension [EXTS]', Array) do |v|
      $extension = (v == false ? [] : v)
    end
    opts.on('--[no-]extstatic [STATIC]', Array) do |v|
      if ($extstatic = v) == false
        $extstatic = []
      elsif v
        $force_static = true if $extstatic.delete("static")
        $extstatic = nil if $extstatic.empty?
      end
    end
    opts.on('--dest-dir=DIR') do |v|
      $destdir = v
    end
    opts.on('--extout=DIR') do |v|
      $extout = (v unless v.empty?)
    end
    opts.on('--make=MAKE') do |v|
      $make = v || 'make'
    end
    opts.on('--make-flags=FLAGS', '--mflags', Shellwords) do |v|
      v.grep(/\A([-\w]+)=(.*)/) {$configure_args["--#{$1}"] = $2}
      if arg = v.first
        arg.insert(0, '-') if /\A[^-][^=]*\Z/ =~ arg
      end
      $makeflags.concat(v.reject {|arg2| /\AMINIRUBY=/ =~ arg2}.quote)
      $mflags.concat(v)
    end
    opts.on('--message [MESSAGE]', String) do |v|
      $message = v
    end
    opts.on('--command-output=FILE', String) do |v|
      $command_output = v
    end
  end
  begin
    $optparser.parse!(ARGV)
  rescue OptionParser::InvalidOption => e
    retry if /^--/ =~ e.args[0]
    $optparser.warn(e)
    abort $optparser.to_s
  end

  $destdir ||= ''

  $make, *rest = Shellwords.shellwords($make)
  $mflags.unshift(*rest) unless rest.empty?

  def $mflags.set?(flag)
    grep(/\A-(?!-).*#{flag.chr}/) { return true }
    false
  end
  def $mflags.defined?(var)
    grep(/\A#{var}=(.*)/) {return $1}
    false
  end

  if $mflags.set?(n)
    $dryrun = true
  else
    $mflags.unshift '-n' if $dryrun
  end

  $continue = $mflags.set?(k)
  if $extout
    $extout = '$(topdir)/'+$extout
    RbConfig::CONFIG["extout"] = CONFIG["extout"] = $extout
    $extout_prefix = $extout ? "$(extout)$(target_prefix)/" : ""
    $mflags << "extout=#$extout" << "extout_prefix=#$extout_prefix"
  end
end
prelude(f, out)
# File ext/ripper/tools/preproc.rb, line 41
def prelude(f, out)
  while line = f.gets
    case line
    when %r</\*%%%\*/>
      out << '/*' << $/
    when %r</\*%>
      out << '*/' << $/
    when %r<%\*/>
      out << $/
    when /\A%%/
      out << '%%' << $/
      return
    when /\A%token/
      out << line.sub(/<\w+>/, '<val>')
    when /\A%type/
      out << line.sub(/<\w+>/, '<val>')
    else
      out << line
    end
  end
end
pretty_print(q)
# File lib/pp.rb, line 512
def pretty_print(q)
  q.text inspect
end
pretty_print_cycle(q)
# File lib/pp.rb, line 504
def pretty_print_cycle(q)
  q.text inspect
end
obj.private_methods(all=true) → array

Returns the list of private methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

VALUE
rb_obj_private_methods(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_priv_i);
}
obj.protected_methods(all=true) → array

Returns the list of protected methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

VALUE
rb_obj_protected_methods(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_prot_i);
}
to_yaml(options = {})

Convert an object to YAML. See Psych.dump for more information on the available options.

Also aliased as: to_yaml
# File ext/psych/lib/psych/core_ext.rb, line 13
def psych_to_yaml options = {}
  Psych.dump self, options
end
obj.public_method(sym) → method

Similar to method, searches public method only.

VALUE
rb_obj_public_method(VALUE obj, VALUE vid)
{
    ID id = rb_check_id(&vid);
    if (!id) {
        rb_method_name_error(CLASS_OF(obj), vid);
    }
    return mnew(CLASS_OF(obj), obj, id, rb_cMethod, TRUE);
}
obj.public_methods(all=true) → array

Returns the list of public methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

VALUE
rb_obj_public_methods(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_pub_i);
}
obj.public_send(symbol [, args...]) → obj

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. Unlike send, #public_send calls public methods only.

1.public_send(:puts, "hello")  # causes NoMethodError
VALUE
rb_f_public_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal(argc, argv, recv, CALL_PUBLIC);
}
ranf()
# File ext/curses/rain.rb, line 12
def ranf
  rand(32767).to_f / 32767
end
rb_fatal(p1)
static VALUE
ruby_fatal(VALUE obj, VALUE msg)
{
    const char *cmsg = NULL;

    (void)obj;

    cmsg = RSTRING_PTR(msg);
    rb_fatal("%s", cmsg);
    return 0; /* never reached */
}
rd_order(na)
# File ext/bigdecimal/sample/linear.rb, line 23
def rd_order(na)
   printf("Number of equations ?") if(na <= 0)
   n = ARGF.gets().to_i
end
read_ids1(path)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 113
def read_ids1(path)
  strip_locations(read_ids1_with_locations(path))
end
read_ids1_with_locations(path)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 134
def read_ids1_with_locations(path)
  h = {}
  File.open(path) {|f|
    f.each do |line|
      next if /\A\#\s*define\s+s?dispatch/ =~ line
      next if /ripper_dispatch/ =~ line
      line.scan(/dispatch(\d)\((\w+)/) do |arity, event|
        (h[event] ||= []).push [f.lineno, arity.to_i]
      end
    end
  }
  h
end
read_ids2(path)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 148
def read_ids2(path)
  File.open(path) {|f|
    return f.read.scan(/ripper_id_(\w+)/).flatten.uniq.sort
  }
end
obj.remove_instance_variable(symbol) → obj

Removes the named instance variable from obj, returning that variable's value.

class Dummy
  attr_reader :var
  def initialize
    @var = 99
  end
  def remove
    remove_instance_variable(:@var)
  end
end
d = Dummy.new
d.var      #=> 99
d.remove   #=> 99
d.var      #=> nil
VALUE
rb_obj_remove_instance_variable(VALUE obj, VALUE name)
{
    VALUE val = Qnil;
    const ID id = rb_check_id(&name);
    st_data_t n, v;
    struct st_table *iv_index_tbl;
    st_data_t index;

    if (!OBJ_UNTRUSTED(obj) && rb_safe_level() >= 4)
	rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't modify instance variable");
    rb_check_frozen(obj);
    if (!id) {
	if (rb_is_instance_name(name)) {
	    rb_name_error_str(name, "instance variable %"PRIsVALUE" not defined",
			      name);
	}
	else {
	    rb_name_error_str(name, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
			      QUOTE(name));
	}
    }
    if (!rb_is_instance_id(id)) {
	rb_name_error(id, "`%"PRIsVALUE"' is not allowed as an instance variable name",
		      QUOTE_ID(id));
    }

    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) goto generic;
    switch (BUILTIN_TYPE(obj)) {
      case T_OBJECT:
        iv_index_tbl = ROBJECT_IV_INDEX_TBL(obj);
        if (!iv_index_tbl) break;
        if (!st_lookup(iv_index_tbl, (st_data_t)id, &index)) break;
        if (ROBJECT_NUMIV(obj) <= (long)index) break;
        val = ROBJECT_IVPTR(obj)[index];
        if (val != Qundef) {
            ROBJECT_IVPTR(obj)[index] = Qundef;
            return val;
        }
	break;
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_MODULE:
	n = id;
	if (RCLASS_IV_TBL(obj) && st_delete(RCLASS_IV_TBL(obj), &n, &v)) {
	    return (VALUE)v;
	}
	break;
      default:
      generic:
	if (FL_TEST(obj, FL_EXIVAR) || rb_special_const_p(obj)) {
	    v = val;
	    if (generic_ivar_remove(obj, (st_data_t)id, &v)) {
		return (VALUE)v;
	    }
	}
	break;
    }
    rb_name_error(id, "instance variable %"PRIsVALUE" not defined", QUOTE_ID(id));

    UNREACHABLE;
}
obj.respond_to?(symbol, include_all=false) → true or false

Returns true if obj responds to the given method. Private and protected methods are included in the search only if the optional second parameter evaluates to true.

If the method is not implemented, as Process.fork on Windows, File.lchmod on GNU/Linux, etc., false is returned.

If the method is not defined, respond_to_missing? method is called and the result is returned.

static VALUE
obj_respond_to(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE mid, priv;
    ID id;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &mid, &priv);
    if (!(id = rb_check_id(&mid))) {
        if (!rb_method_basic_definition_p(CLASS_OF(obj), idRespond_to_missing)) {
            VALUE args[2];
            args[0] = ID2SYM(rb_to_id(mid));
            args[1] = priv;
            return rb_funcall2(obj, idRespond_to_missing, 2, args);
        }
        return Qfalse;
    }
    if (basic_obj_respond_to(obj, id, !RTEST(priv)))
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.respond_to_missing?(symbol, include_all) → true or false

DO NOT USE THIS DIRECTLY.

Hook method to return whether the obj can respond to id method or not.

See respond_to?.

static VALUE
obj_respond_to_missing(VALUE obj, VALUE mid, VALUE priv)
{
    return Qfalse;
}
reverse_each_name(pat)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 115
def reverse_each_name(pat)
  DEFS.reverse_each {|name, default_value|
    next if pat !~ name
    yield name
  }
end
reverse_each_name_with_prefix_optional(pat, prefix_pat)
# File ext/socket/mkconstants.rb, line 201
def reverse_each_name_with_prefix_optional(pat, prefix_pat)
  reverse_each_name(pat) {|n|
    yield n, n
  }
  if prefix_pat
    reverse_each_name(pat) {|n|
      next if prefix_pat !~ n
      yield n, $'
    }
  end
end
rm()

Remove the FILE

ruby -run -e rm -- [OPTION] FILE

-f          ignore nonexistent files
-r          remove the contents of directories recursively
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 135
def rm
  setup("fr") do |argv, options|
    cmd = "rm"
    cmd += "_r" if options.delete :r
    options[:force] = true if options.delete :f
    FileUtils.send cmd, argv, options
  end
end
rmdir()

Remove the DIR.

ruby -run -e rmdir -- [OPTION] DIR

-p          remove DIRECTORY and its ancestors.
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 170
def rmdir
  setup("p") do |argv, options|
    options[:parents] = true if options.delete :p
    FileUtils.rmdir argv, options
  end
end
foo.send(symbol [, args...]) → obj foo.__send__(symbol [, args...]) → obj

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. You can use __send__ if the name send clashes with an existing method in obj.

class Klass
  def hello(*args)
    "Hello " + args.join(' ')
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"
VALUE
rb_f_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal(argc, argv, recv, CALL_FCALL);
}
setup(options = "", *long_options)
# File lib/un.rb, line 35
def setup(options = "", *long_options)
  opt_hash = {}
  argv = []
  OptionParser.new do |o|
    options.scan(/.:?/) do |s|
      opt_name = s.delete(":").intern
      o.on("-" + s.tr(":", " ")) do |val|
        opt_hash[opt_name] = val
      end
    end
    long_options.each do |s|
      opt_name, arg_name = s.split(/(?=[\s=])/, 2)
      opt_name.sub!(/\A--/, '')
      s = "--#{opt_name.gsub(/([A-Z]+|[a-z])([A-Z])/, '\1-\2').downcase}#{arg_name}"
      puts "#{opt_name}=>#{s}" if $DEBUG
      opt_name = opt_name.intern
      o.on(s) do |val|
        opt_hash[opt_name] = val
      end
    end
    o.on("-v") do opt_hash[:verbose] = true end
    o.order!(ARGV) do |x|
      if /[*?\[{]/ =~ x
        argv.concat(Dir[x])
      else
        argv << x
      end
    end
  end
  yield argv, opt_hash
end
shortest_abbreviation(s='', m=callable_methods)
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 28
def shortest_abbreviation(s='', m=callable_methods)
  s=s.to_s
  our_case = (A..Z)===s[0]
  if m.index(s.to_sym)
    1.upto(s.size){|z|s.scan(/./).combination(z).map{|trial|
      next unless ((A..Z)===trial[0]) == our_case
      trial*=''
      return trial if matching_methods(trial,m)[0].to_s==s
    }}
  else
    nil
  end
end
show_message(message)
# File ext/curses/hello.rb, line 6
def show_message(message)
  width = message.length + 6
  win = Window.new(5, width,
                   (lines - 5) / 2, (cols - width) / 2)
  win.box(|, -)
  win.setpos(2, 3)
  win.addstr(message)
  win.refresh
  win.getch
  win.close
end
obj.singleton_class → class

Returns the singleton class of obj. This method creates a new singleton class if obj does not have it.

If obj is nil, true, or false, it returns NilClass, TrueClass, or FalseClass, respectively. If obj is a Fixnum or a Symbol, it raises a TypeError.

Object.new.singleton_class  #=> #<Class:#<Object:0xb7ce1e24>>
String.singleton_class      #=> #<Class:String>
nil.singleton_class         #=> NilClass
static VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_class(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_singleton_class(obj);
}
obj.singleton_methods(all=true) → array

Returns an array of the names of singleton methods for obj. If the optional all parameter is true, the list will include methods in modules included in obj. Only public and protected singleton methods are returned.

module Other
  def three() end
end

class Single
  def Single.four() end
end

a = Single.new

def a.one()
end

class << a
  include Other
  def two()
  end
end

Single.singleton_methods    #=> [:four]
a.singleton_methods(false)  #=> [:two, :one]
a.singleton_methods         #=> [:two, :one, :three]
VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_methods(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE recur, ary, klass;
    st_table *list;

    if (argc == 0) {
	recur = Qtrue;
    }
    else {
	rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &recur);
    }
    klass = CLASS_OF(obj);
    list = st_init_numtable();
    if (klass && FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	if (RCLASS_M_TBL(klass))
	    st_foreach(RCLASS_M_TBL(klass), method_entry_i, (st_data_t)list);
	klass = RCLASS_SUPER(klass);
    }
    if (RTEST(recur)) {
	while (klass && (FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON) || RB_TYPE_P(klass, T_ICLASS))) {
	    if (RCLASS_M_TBL(klass))
		st_foreach(RCLASS_M_TBL(klass), method_entry_i, (st_data_t)list);
	    klass = RCLASS_SUPER(klass);
	}
    }
    ary = rb_ary_new();
    st_foreach(list, ins_methods_i, ary);
    st_free_table(list);

    return ary;
}
stop_msg_loop()
# File ext/win32ole/sample/ienavi.rb, line 9
def stop_msg_loop
  puts "Now Stop IE..."
  $LOOP = FALSE;
end
strip_locations(h)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 117
def strip_locations(h)
  h.map {|event, list| [event, list.first[1]] }       .sort_by {|event, arity| event.to_s }
end
sysquote(x)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 49
def sysquote(x)
  @quote ||= /os2/ =~ (CROSS_COMPILING || RUBY_PLATFORM)
  @quote ? x.quote : x
end
sysread(io, size)

cgi_runner.rb – CGI launcher.

Author: IPR – Internet Programming with Ruby – writers Copyright © 2000 TAKAHASHI Masayoshi, GOTOU YUUZOU Copyright © 2002 Internet Programming with Ruby writers. All rights reserved.

$IPR: cgi_runner.rb,v 1.9 2002/09/25 11:33:15 gotoyuzo Exp $

# File lib/webrick/httpservlet/cgi_runner.rb, line 11
def sysread(io, size)
  buf = ""
  while size > 0
    tmp = io.sysread(size)
    buf << tmp
    size -= tmp.bytesize
  end
  return buf
end
system(*args)
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 58
def system(*args)
  if verbose?
    if args.size == 1
      puts args
    else
      puts Shellwords.join(args)
    end
  end
  super
end
obj.taint → obj

Marks obj as tainted—if the $SAFE level is set appropriately, many method calls which might alter the running programs environment will refuse to accept tainted strings.

VALUE
rb_obj_taint(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_secure(4);
    if (!OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) {
        rb_check_frozen(obj);
        OBJ_TAINT(obj);
    }
    return obj;
}
obj.tainted? → true or false

Returns true if the object is tainted.

VALUE
rb_obj_tainted(VALUE obj)
{
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(obj))
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
obj.tap{|x|...} → obj

Yields x to the block, and then returns x. The primary purpose of this method is to “tap into” a method chain, in order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.

(1..10)                .tap {|x| puts "original: #{x.inspect}"}
  .to_a                .tap {|x| puts "array: #{x.inspect}"}
  .select {|x| x%2==0} .tap {|x| puts "evens: #{x.inspect}"}
  .map { |x| x*x }     .tap {|x| puts "squares: #{x.inspect}"}
VALUE
rb_obj_tap(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_yield(obj);
    return obj;
}
timeout(n, e = nil, &block)

Identical to:

Timeout::timeout(n, e, &block).

This method is deprecated and provided only for backwards compatibility. You should use Timeout#timeout instead.

# File lib/timeout.rb, line 96
def timeout(n, e = nil, &block)
  Timeout::timeout(n, e, &block)
end
obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args) → enum obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args) → enum obj.to_enum(method = :each, *args) {|*args| block} → enum obj.enum_for(method = :each, *args){|*args| block} → enum

Creates a new Enumerator which will enumerate by calling method on obj, passing args if any.

If a block is given, it will be used to calculate the size of the enumerator without the need to iterate it (see Enumerator#size).

Examples

str = "xyz"

enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
enum.each { |b| puts b }
# => 120
# => 121
# => 122

# protect an array from being modified by some_method
a = [1, 2, 3]
some_method(a.to_enum)

It is typical to call #to_enum when defining methods for a generic Enumerable, in case no block is passed.

Here is such an example, with parameter passing and a sizing block:

module Enumerable
  # a generic method to repeat the values of any enumerable
  def repeat(n)
    raise ArgumentError, "#{n} is negative!" if n < 0
    unless block_given?
      return to_enum(__method__, n) do # __method__ is :repeat here
        sz = size     # Call size and multiply by n...
        sz * n if sz  # but return nil if size itself is nil
      end
    end
    each do |*val|
      n.times { yield *val }
    end
  end
end

%[hello world].repeat(2) { |w| puts w }
  # => Prints 'hello', 'hello', 'world', 'world'
enum = (1..14).repeat(3)
  # => returns an Enumerator when called without a block
enum.first(4) # => [1, 1, 1, 2]
enum.size # => 42
static VALUE
obj_to_enum(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE enumerator, meth = sym_each;

    if (argc > 0) {
        --argc;
        meth = *argv++;
    }
    enumerator = rb_enumeratorize_with_size(obj, meth, argc, argv, 0);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        enumerator_ptr(enumerator)->size = rb_block_proc();
    }
    return enumerator;
}
obj.to_s → string

Returns a string representing obj. The default to_s prints the object's class and an encoding of the object id. As a special case, the top-level object that is the initial execution context of Ruby programs returns “main.''

VALUE
rb_any_to_s(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE str;
    VALUE cname = rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(obj));

    str = rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE":%p>", cname, (void*)obj);
    OBJ_INFECT(str, obj);

    return str;
}
to_yaml(options = {})
touch()

Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time.

ruby -run -e touch -- [OPTION] FILE

-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 221
def touch
  setup do |argv, options|
    FileUtils.touch argv, options
  end
end
obj.trust → obj

Removes the untrusted mark from obj.

VALUE
rb_obj_trust(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_secure(3);
    if (OBJ_UNTRUSTED(obj)) {
        rb_check_frozen(obj);
        FL_UNSET(obj, FL_UNTRUSTED);
    }
    return obj;
}
try_declared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 48
def try_declared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  if try_link("#{cpp_include(headers)}
/*top*/
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  void *conftest_var = &#{var};
  return 0;
}
", opt, &b)
    $defs.push(format("-DHAVE_DECLARED_LIBVAR_%s", var.tr_cpp))
    true
  else
    false
  end
end
try_toplevel(src, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 96
def try_toplevel(src, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  if try_compile("#{cpp_include(headers)}
/*top*/
#{src}
", opt, &b)
    true
  else
    false
  end
end
try_undeclared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
# File ext/dbm/extconf.rb, line 70
def try_undeclared_libvar(var, headers = nil, opt = "", &b)
  var, type = *var
  if try_link("#{cpp_include(headers)}
/*top*/
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  typedef #{type || 'int'} conftest_type;
  extern conftest_type #{var};
  conftest_type *conftest_var = &#{var};
  return 0;
}
", opt, &b)
    $defs.push(format("-DHAVE_UNDECLARED_LIBVAR_%s", var.tr_cpp))
    true
  else
    false
  end
end
obj.untaint → obj

Removes the taint from obj.

VALUE
rb_obj_untaint(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_secure(3);
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(obj)) {
        rb_check_frozen(obj);
        FL_UNSET(obj, FL_TAINT);
    }
    return obj;
}
obj.untrust → obj

Marks obj as untrusted.

VALUE
rb_obj_untrust(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_secure(4);
    if (!OBJ_UNTRUSTED(obj)) {
        rb_check_frozen(obj);
        OBJ_UNTRUST(obj);
    }
    return obj;
}
obj.untrusted? → true or false

Returns true if the object is untrusted.

VALUE
rb_obj_untrusted(VALUE obj)
{
    if (OBJ_UNTRUSTED(obj))
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}
usage(msg)
# File ext/ripper/tools/generate.rb, line 63
def usage(msg)
  $stderr.puts msg
  $stderr.puts @parser.help
  exit false
end
usercode(f, out)
# File ext/ripper/tools/preproc.rb, line 85
def usercode(f, out)
  while line = f.gets
    out << line
  end
end
verbose?()
# File ext/extmk.rb, line 54
def verbose?
  $mflags.defined?("V") == "1"
end
wait_writable()

Wait until the file becomes writable.

ruby -run -e wait_writable -- [OPTION] FILE

-n RETRY    count to retry
-w SEC      each wait time in seconds
-v          verbose
# File lib/un.rb, line 237
def wait_writable
  setup("n:w:v") do |argv, options|
    verbose = options[:verbose]
    n = options[:n] and n = Integer(n)
    wait = (wait = options[:w]) ? Float(wait) : 0.2
    argv.each do |file|
      begin
        open(file, "r+b")
      rescue Errno::ENOENT
        break
      rescue Errno::EACCES => e
        raise if n and (n -= 1) <= 0
        puts e
        STDOUT.flush
        sleep wait
        retry
      end
    end
  end
end
xmp(exps, bind = nil)

A convenience method that's only available when the you require the IRB::XMP standard library.

Creates a new XMP object, using the given expressions as the exps parameter, and optional binding as bind or uses the top-level binding. Then evaluates the given expressions using the :XMP prompt mode.

For example:

require 'irb/xmp'
ctx = binding
xmp 'foo = "bar"', ctx
#=> foo = "bar"
  #==>"bar"
ctx.eval 'foo'
#=> "bar"

See XMP.new for more information.

# File lib/irb/xmp.rb, line 168
def xmp(exps, bind = nil)
  bind = IRB::Frame.top(1) unless bind
  xmp = XMP.new(bind)
  xmp.puts exps
  xmp
end
Instance Protected methods
hash()

Generates a Fixnum hash value for this object. This function must have the property that a.eql?(b) implies a.hash == b.hash.

The hash value is used along with eql? by the Hash class to determine if two objects reference the same hash key. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of a Fixnum will be truncated before being used.

The hash value for an object may not be identical across invocations or implementations of ruby. If you need a stable identifier across ruby invocations and implementations you will need to generate one with a custom method.

VALUE
rb_obj_hash(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE oid = rb_obj_id(obj);
#if SIZEOF_LONG == SIZEOF_VOIDP
    st_index_t index = NUM2LONG(oid);
#elif SIZEOF_LONG_LONG == SIZEOF_VOIDP
    st_index_t index = NUM2LL(oid);
#else
# error not supported
#endif
    st_index_t h = rb_hash_end(rb_hash_start(index));
    return LONG2FIX(h);
}
Instance Private methods
do_until()
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 58
def do_until
  0 until yield
end
do_while()
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 54
def do_while
  0 while yield
end
h(a='H', b='w', c='!')
# File golf_prelude.rb, line 48
def h(a='H', b='w', c='!')
  puts "#{a}ello, #{b}orld#{c}"
end